Tzav

Tzav – Command

Tzav – Command : Torah commands that this Esh Tamid (Continuous fire) won’t be quenched ( i.e Don’t quench the Spirit ). A Supernal fire from heaven always burned upon the altar above and Let we see the fire of love for G-d that burns continuously within every soul of Israel in realm below.

TzavParsha

The Twenty-fifth reading from the Torah and from the book of Leviticus is called Tzav (??), which means “Command.” , where the LORD says to Moses, “Command Aaron and his sons …”. In this portion the following areas are discussed: laws of burnt offering, laws of Mincha offering, offering brought by Aaron and his descendants, sin offering, guilt offering, peace offering, portion of sacrifice that is entitled for cohanim (priests), gathering of the Israel people for the anointing of Aaron and his sons to enter the holy priesthood and the anointing of the tabernacles and its contents. It also explains the Levitical duty to keep a perpetual fire burning on the altar. The prohibition of eating chelev, the consecrated fat covering the animal’s internal organs, and blood. The priests perform a ritual purification and Aaron is dressed in his holy garments. The Tabernacle is anointed, and then Aaron. Aaron’s sons are garbed. Then come a series of sacrifices as part of the consecration and purification of the Tabernacle . And the actual ordination ceremonies, lasting seven days.

The Eternal One spoke to Moses, saying: “Command Aaron and his sons thus: This is the ritual of the burnt offering: The burnt offering itself shall remain where it is burned upon the altar all night until morning, while the fire on the altar is kept going on it.” – Leviticus 6:1-2

SUMMARY:

  • The five sacrifices that the priests are to perform are described. (Leviticus 6:1-7:38)
  • Limitations on the consumption of meat are delineated. ( Leviticus 7:17-27 )
  • The ordination of Aaron and his sons as priests and the preparation of the Tabernacle as a holy place are given. ( Leviticus 8:1-36 )

Zohar writings:Come and behold: it is written, “This is the Torah of the burnt offering” (Lev 6:2). Rabbi Chiya said: I have interpreted this verse in the following manner: “This is the Torah,” is the Congregation of Yisrael, NAMELY MALCHUT ( i.e Kingdom). It is “the burnt offering (lit. ‘rising’),” since it rises to be adorned high up, properly attached even to the place called ‘the Holy of Holies’, BINAH. ( i.e understanding/above Jerusalem)

Have no fear, little flock ( i.e remnant of Israel), for your Father has resolved to give you the Kingdom! -Luke 12:32

“This is the Torah” is the Congregation of Yisrael, MALCHUT ( i.e Kingdom) and the burnt offering is an evil thought that arises in man’s mind to make him deviate from the way of Truth. It is “the burnt offering,” which rises and accuses man. It should be burnt by fire, so not to provide a room for accusations.

Olah (ascending – offering ): The offering that is completely burnt .And Instructions concerning the Olah (burnt offering), the perpetual fire on the altar, and the Minhah (meal-offering); the specific meal-offering brought by Aaron and his descendants. – Leviticus 1:1-17 & 6:8-13.

Minkha (tribute – flour offering/gift offering of grain): A person was so poor that he could not even afford a bird then he could bring Mincha offering (Mincha means gift). Leviticus 2:1-16; 6:14-23.

Shelamim (Peace – offering): And in korbanot-offerings that the Pesach could be compared with the Personal Peace Offering which described in chapter of Leviticus : “Peace Unto HaShem” Leviticus 3:1-17; 7:11-36.

Pesach:

  • Pesach must be offered in the Mish’kan.
  • It may be slaughtered anywhere in the courtyard
  • It may be eaten anywhere in the camp/ Jerusalem.

The Purpose of the Personal Peace Offering was to bring unity and wholeness in the relationship between the worshipper and Most High.

That first Pesach was the way that G-d protected His people from the wrath that He poured out on Pharaoh and Egypt by which their freedom was finally realized. what is the purpose of the freedom! G-d said, “Let My people go, that they may serve Me…” (Exodus 7:16). This process was to bring harmony and unity between G-d and His people.

In similar context that Yeshua our Pesach Lamb has brought wholeness and unity between Most High and each individual souls of Israel. His heavenly holy work expressed an act of love and intimacy and it is about truly a Peace Offering. As Scripture tells us: Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have shalom with G-d through our Master Yeshua the Messiah.” -Romans 5:1

Therefore purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, since you truly are unleavened. For indeed Messiah, our Passover [Pesach], was sacrificed for us. Therefore let us keep the feast [Passover], not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

-1 Corinthians 5:7-8

In this way, Yeshua( i.e Tzaddik) holy work is compared in the Pesach Offering as a Personal Peace Offering.

Hatat (purification [offering]) : This was required for sin done by mistake. This is one of the example: a person did not know the Torah’s commandments. Leviticus 4:1-5:13; 6:24-7:7.

Asham (guilt/trespss – offering ): These are the below reasons for offering an Asham – Leviticus 5:14-6:7; 6: 17; 7:1-7.

  • A person steals and also misuses temple items
  • For the High Priest/Sanhedrin/King who sinned

All Sacrifices -Salt:

All sacrifices of animal or flour were salted. Salt has a specific relationship to the eternal covenant G-d has with Israel.

“You are salt for the Land. But if salt becomes tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything except being thrown out for people to trample on. -Matthew 5:13-14

The same concept is found in the scriptures and Jewish writings:

Neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy G-d to be lacking..-Leviticus 2:13 ; It is a covenant of salt for ever -Numbers 18:19

Mas. Menachoth 19b, 20a – For it has been taught: The verse, It is a covenant of salt for ever, signifies that there is a covenant declared in regard to salt. So R. Judah. R. Simeon says, Here it is said, It is a covenant of salt for ever, and there it is said, The covenant of an everlasting priesthood, as it is impossible to conceive of sacrifices without the priesthood so it is impossible to conceive of sacrifices without salt. –Talmud

Genesis XCVII – The throne of Israel was given to Judah through the righteous David-to him and to his sons as a covenant made with salt.-Midrash Rabbah

‘It is written: “Neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy G-d to be lacking from thy meal-offering; with all thine oblations thou shalt offer salt.” Salt was to be used because it softens bitterness, and so mankind cannot do without it. Salt is the covenant upon which the world is established: hence it is called “the covenant of thy G-d”. -Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 241b

Israel is always “G-d’s chosen people,” and the faith we received through the giving of the Torah and atonement holy work in above Mishkyan was accomplished by our Messiah. Yeshua Himself said he came for the lost sheep of Israel and told his apostles to do the same – Matthew 10:5-6; 15:24.

Try to imitate me, even as I myself try to imitate the Messiah. -1 Corinthians 11:1

TORAH

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Leviticus 6:1-8:36

Haftarah Portion

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Jeremiah 7:21-8:3, 9:22-23

Ha-Berit ha-Hadasha

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Mark 7:31-8:38

Notes:

“Command Aaron and his sons to say: This is the Torah of the Ascending-offering” – Leviticus 6:2 -9 . The word “Tzav” means to “charge” to “command” something. From Tzav comes the word “Mitzvah” (Commandment). The word thus implies a required obedience as in the first time we find it: “And the Lord G-d commanded Adam” (Genesis 2:16). So we read: “And Moses and Aaron did so as HaShem commanded [Tziva] them” -Exodus 7:6. So Aaron and his sons did all the things that Lord had commanded by the hand of Moses. -Leviticus 8:36

Therefore it’s written: you may command your children to observe to do all the words of this Torah… because it is your Life – Deuteronomy 32:46-47 .

“The Purpose of Worshipping G-d is to Bring About the Coupling of Ze’er Anpin and Nukva” – Chapter 9 title of Yedid Nefesh (Song of the Soul), Rabbi Yecheil Bar-Lev, Petach Tikva. The Unity of the “spiritual groom and bride” which in itself represents the “unification of the Name of G-d” – Zechariah 14:9.

So the purpose of the commands and the obedience is to unite the Bride and the Groom in two levels, the inner service and the outer service of our inner Sanctuary in order to bring a complete meaning of “Life” to this world. There are two categories for the Temple services: the “inner services” in the Heikhal (the palace, inside the building) and the “outer services” in the Azarah (the courtyard). This applies to our inner sanctuary: the “inner development of Spirituality” and the “Sanctification of G-d’s Name in this physcial world”.

Ascending offerings:

Sacrifices were offered three times per day. This also applies to our inner Sanctuary. We must bring offerings three times per day too, as it’s written: “I will call upon G-d… Evening, morning and at noon” – Psalms 55:18.

from Daniel: “He kneeled upon his knees three times a day” (Daniel 6: 10 -11 ). As the Korban has the purpose to bring the worshipper closer to the Holy of Holies, our Prayer also has the purpose to bring us each day closer to Heaven.

When we say “Israel are the chosen people” because they were chosen to be a Light to the nations -Isaiah 42:6.

It’s written: “Their ascending offerings and their sacrifices will be accepted on my altar, for My House is to be called a House of Prayer for all people– Isaiah 56:7.

This is said concerning the Temple, yet it applies to the inner sanctuary of all nations (lekhol haAmim) which should be called “A House of Prayer” too. This teaches that G-d’s desire is to dwell within everyone; He wants the whole Earth to be his home. Although the Holy City may be the capital of the kingdom, the Kingdom is within us all. It is therefore written: “My Name is great among the nations, and offerings for my sake are presented in every place” (Malachi 1:11). Now this seems a contradiction since sacrifices were restricted only to be offered in Jerusalem (Deut 12:14). But this speaks of those who study the Word of G-d in order to obey it; for G-d account them as having offered an ascending offering (cf. Menakhot 110a), so it’s written: “HaShem delights with ascending-offerings and sacrifices as obeying HaShem’s voice [KiShmoah bikol Adonai]” (1 Samuel 15:22).

Our prayers must be like an Ascending [burnt] offering. It ascends to Heaven and burns entirely for G-d. Then our closeness with the Most High will be like a friend, as it’s written: “Abraham my friend” – Isaiah 41:8.

on the gold altar in front of the throne. The smoke of the incense went up with the prayers of G-d’s people from the hand of the angel before G-d. -Revelation 8:4

Keep the Fire Burning:

Then YHWH spoke to Moses, saying, “Command Aaron and his sons, saying, ‘This is the law of the burnt offering ( korban olah): The burnt offering ( korban olah) shall be on the hearth upon the altar all night until morning, and the fire of the altar shall be kept burning on it.Leviticus 6:1-2

“A Continuous fire must burn upon the altar; it must not be quenched” – Leviticus 6:6; 6:13.

Don’t quench the Spirit…. -1 Thessalonians 5:19

The altar fire was holy fire ignited by the presence of G-d. This sacred fire was never to be extinguished. “The fire on the altar is to be kept burning on it. … fire shall be kept burning continually on the altar; it is not to go out” – Leviticus 6:12–13.

It is commanded to offer daily offerings every day and then kindle a fire, as it is written: “A fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out” -Leviticus 6:6.

For indeed,“Our G-d is a consuming fire!” -Hebrews 12:29

The intention is to burn them with the flame of the Torah, as it is written: ‘Is not my word like a fire?’ says Hashem” (Jeremiah 23:29), by the flame of the candle we are commanded to light, with love a Namely, By the Flames of Fire of Love for percepts.

Zohar writings: Rabbi Aba opened the discussion, saying: “And the fire upon the altar shall be kept burning in it…” (Lev 6:5). HE ASKS: “And the fire upon the altar shall be kept burning in it.” For what reason? “And the priest shall burn wood on it every morning” (Ibid.). For what reason? Why should a priest BURN WOOD UPON THE FIRE? We learned that fire is always Judgement, and the priest comes from the right side and is far from Judgement, for the priest does not come into the world through Judgement. Yet here it indicates that he should burn Judgment in the world, MEANING HE SHOULD BURN WOOD, as written: “And the priest shall burn wood on it.”

There is a fire of love for G-d that burns within every soul. Torah commands that this Esh Tamid (Continuous fire) won’t be quenched. Our sages explain that “continuous” implies even during Shabbat, and even under conditions of ritual impurity – Yerusalmi Yoma 4:6.

“Shabbat” means “in a time of high spirituality, a time in which we are separated from the mundane”. “Ritual Impurity” represents the opposite side, an excessive attachment to the material world (cf. Maayanah Shel Torah). in these both cases the Torah warns not to let the fire be quenched. Torah tells them not to quench the fire. Whatever is your situation, you must continue bringing wood to the altar.

Do not burn fire in all your residences on the day of Shabbat. – Exodus 35:3

The above verse slightly out of its natural context. We often speak of anger in terms of “fire”, such as in the expression “his blood is boiling”. Moshe wanring to Israel not to “burn fire” on shabbath may be understood to mean that one must avoid anger and strife especially on shabbath. In the book of NewTestament: Yes, the tongue is a fire, a world of wickedness. The tongue is so placed in our body that it defiles every part of it, setting ablaze the whole of our life; and it is set on fire by Gei-Hinnom itself. For people have tamed and continue to tame all kinds of animals, birds, reptiles and sea creatures; but the tongue no one can tame — it is an unstable and evil thing, full of death-dealing poison! With it we blessAdonai, the Father; and with it we curse people, who were made in the image of G-d.- James 3:6 -9

Although a supernal fire from heaven always burned upon the altar, nevertheless, it was imperative that an additional fire be provided by man. – Talmud, Eruvin 63a

When the Holy One, blessed be He, commanded Moses, ‘Make Me a Tabernacle,’ he should have just put up four poles and spread out the Tabernacle over them! We are therefore forced to infer that the Holy One, blessed be He, showed Moses on high, red fire, green fire, black fire, and white fire, and said to him: Make it according to the fashion thereof, which hath been shown thee in the mount (Ex. XXVI, 30). -Midrash Rabbah, Numbers XII:8

‘Observe that when Moses was commanded to make the Tabernacle, he could not comprehend its design until G-d showed him an exact replica of every single part, a replica in white fire, in black fire, in red fire, and in green fire. Scripture thus says: “And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount” (Exodus xxv, 40). -Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 241a

The heavens tell of the glory of G-d. -Psalm 19:2

Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 186a – R. Judah discoursed here on the text: The Lord also thundered in the heavens, and the Most High gave forth his voice; hailstones and coals of fire (Ps. XVIII, 14). Hence the expression “And the Lord also thundered in the heavens” indicates judgement, while “the Most High gave forth his voice” refers to mercy, and “hailstones and coals of fire” signify water and fire, that is, mercy and judgement commingled.

Then they saw what looked like tongues of fire, which separated and came to rest on each one of them. -Acts 2:3

and to give rest along with us to you who are being troubled, when the Lord Yeshua is revealed from heaven ( i.e supernal fire from heaven) with his mighty angels in a fiery flame. Then he will punish those who don’t know G-d, that is, those who don’t listen to the Good News of our Lord Yeshua and obey it. They will suffer the just penalty of eternal destruction, far away from the face of the Lord and the glory of his might. On that Day, when he comes to be glorified by his holy people and admired by all who have trusted, you will be among them, because you trusted our witness to you. -II Thessalonians 1:7-10

It is a commandment to sacrifice the burnt offering properly. Of this, it says: “This is the Torah of the burnt offering…” ( Lev 6:2). There are five kinds of fire that used to descend upon the offering: 1) A consuming fire which does not drink; 2) A fire that drinks but does not consume; 3) A consuming and drinking fire; 4) A fire which consumes both moist and dry things; 5) A fire which does not consume nor drink. Corresponding to these are the verses: 1) “This is the Torah of the burnt offering”; 2) “It is the burnt offering, which shall be burning” (Ibid.); 3) “upon the altar” (Ibid.); 4) “all night” (Ibid.); 5) “And the fire of the altar shall be kept burning in it” (Ibid.).

They all rose and said: Faithful Shepherd, surely you are the craftsman, for it says of you, “Moses received the Torah from Sinai.” From that time onward, everyone is your student, from Joshua to the end of all generations. This is what we learned, that he “transmitted it to Joshua; Joshua to the elders; the elders to the prophets,” to the end of all. Who is your skilled student MENTIONED ABOVE? We see that it has been said to let everything wait until Elijah comes. HENCE, ELIJAH IS YOUR EXPERIENCED STUDENT.

Bind up (to preserve for the future) the testimony prophetic record, seal up the torah teaching among my disciples. Entrust them to some righteous man to pass on down to righteous men of future generations. The torah of our righteous Mashiach will be revealed little by little to select individuals by the Mashiach ben Yosef, Amen.

“Yeshua Melech our Mashiach transmitted the Living Torah to twelve Students, seventy Elders. It also received by mixed multitude beginning from Yerushalayim.” – Mattew, Mark , Luke and Acts

Zohar: He said to them: Surely it is so, THAT ELIJAH is my companion student, of whom it says: “The son of Aaron the priest” (Bemidbar 25:7), AS SAID, THAT PINCHAS IS ELIJAH. As is said of Aaron: “And he shall be to you as a mouth” (Shemot 4:16), similarly, his son, ELIJAH, will be to me as a mouth, FOR HE WILL IMPROVE the Oral Torah. For just as I was slow of speech (lit. ‘mouth’) and of a slow tongue, so will the Holy One, blessed be He, raise me, IN THE END OF CORRECTION, slow of speech in the Oral Torah and of a slow tongue in the Written Torah, so that those who knew me not will not say it is someone else – MEANING, AS IT HAS BEEN SAID, THAT THE DEAD WILL RISE WITH THEIR DEFECTS, SO THAT IT WILL NOT BE SAID THAT IT IS SOMEONE ELSE. Elijah will be to me as a mouth to explain all those doubts and interpret them. The smoke coming up from the mouths of the sages of the Torah with words of the torah is like the smoke of the wood set on altar. This is the secret of Malchut. ( i.e Kingdom).

Our sages said, I have created the evil inclination and I have created the Torah as a spice. Our sages said (Makot 23b-24a): Six hundred thirteen mitzvot were given to Moses… David emphasized eleven of them… Isaiah emphasized six… Micah emphasized three… Isaiah returned and emphasized two… Habakuk emphasized one, as it says (Habakuk ), “The righteous man shall live by his faith.” Faith and trust (emunah ve’bitachon) in Most High are the foundation of the Torah. Hear the Word of Mighty one, People of Yisrael. Learn to do good, seek mercy and justice. Afflict Your Souls, Tear your Heart, not your garments turn to Most High, Your Most High and Repent Children of Men and Have Faith in Mashiach about the final redemption in our lifes.

One of the promises regarding the Messianic Redemption concerns the Torah we will then study: “A new Torah will emit from Me” (Midrash Rabbah) Leviticus based on Isaiah . In fact, “The Torah which we study in this world is naught in comparison to the Torah of Mashiach” (Midrash Rabba).

And all were astounded so that they began to discuss with each other, saying, What is this? Torah Chadasha with samchut? – Markos 1:27 Orthodox Jewish Bible

The house of Ya‘akov will be a fire and the house of Yosef a flame,

setting aflame and consuming the stubble which is the house of ‘Esav.

None of the house of ‘Esav will remain, for Adonai has spoken. -Obadiah 1 : 18


THE ALTAR FIRE — Studies from Rabbi Avraham Yehoshua Greenbaum

Parshas TZAV is taken up with sacrificial laws and rituals. The Temple Altar and sacrificial system come to guide us to elevate our own blood, fat and energy to fuel the fire of the Service of G-d on the Altar of our own bodies. The Altar fire is a metaphor for the human soul, which indeed can only survive in the human body through a daily diet of “offerings”, the various foods that “keep body and soul together”. Our bodies “burn up” the various nutrients we take in, just as the Altar “consumes” the sacrifices.

The body requires tending in order to serve as an “altar” for the service of God, just as the Temple Altar had to be tended. Our parshah ofTZAV opens with the Mitzvah of TERUMAS HADESHEN, tending the Altar each morning by removing the ashes, followed by stoking the fire with wood to keep it burning bright. This opening mitzvah of the day in the Temple — removal of the ashes of consumed sacrifices — may be compared to what is normally the first physical functioning in a person’s day: elimination of wastes to cleanse the body for the service of G-d.

Keeping the Altar fire stoked was the daily task of the priests. So each one of us has the task of keeping the “altar” of the body, the digestive system and the liver, properly stoked with the right nutrients in the right quantities. As priests of our own bodies, our aim must be to keep the fire of the soul burning brightly every day — as a “fire offering, a sweet savor for HaShem”.

Last week’s parshah of VAYIKRA introduced the subject of sacrifices by setting forth all of the different categories of sacrifices and the various animals, birds or produce that are to be brought in each case. The major part of our present parshah, TZAV, is a continuation of the subject of sacrifices. TZAV explains the specific procedures accompanying the actual offering of the each of the different kinds of sacrifices. The parshah begins with the daily procedure of removing the Altar ashes because this was the start of the Temple service each morning. Removal of the ashes and stoking the fire were preliminaries before slaughter of the daily TAMID (perpetual) sacrifice and burning of its parts on the Altar.

TZAV continues with the procedures accompanying the MINCHAH-flour offering, the CHATAS-Sin and ASHAM-Guilt offerings, the SHELAMIM-Peace Offering, and another specific kind of peace offering: the TODAH-Thanksgiving Offering for those who have been miraculously delivered from serious danger (illness, captivity, shipwreck or being lost in the wilderness).

Some sacrifices, such as the OLAH-Whole-burned offerings and certain other offerings, were “consumed” only on the Altar and were not permitted to be consumed by any humans. However, the priests had a share in eating Sin, Guilt and Minchah offerings, as well as the Peace and Thanksgiving offerings. In the case of the last two, the person who brings the offering also has a share in it together with his dear ones.

The fact that a priest can eat from a sin or guilt-offering and thereby accomplish atonement for the sinner is a wonder. So too is the eating of an animal to make peace between man and G-d. What distinguishes holy eating from animalistic eating for the sake of pure self-gratification is the motive of the person who is eating — his KAVANAH (= intention). Having the correct intention is a recurrent theme in our parshah. The priest has to have the correct intention at every stage in the sacrificial ritual.

So too, when we eat, everything depends on our intention. The parshah is teaching us to eat with the intention of stoking the Altar of G-d with nutrients that we can elevate to His service by using this energy for our prayers and our mitzvot day by day. The blessings we make before and after eating serve us to focus upon this intention.

Eating may serve as a means of celebrating, as in the case of the TODAH-Thanksgiving offering. The rabbis stated that in the future, this is the one kind of personal offering that will remain. (Since people will be cleansed of sin, there will be no more place for sin and guilt offerings.) May we be worthy of offering the THANKSGIVING PEACE-OFFERING in the rebuilt HOLY TEMPLE in order to celebrate the true end of war and the inauguration of genuine peace with the coming of MELECH HAMASHIACH very soon in our times. Amen.

Shabbat Shalom! –Rabbi Avraham Yehoshua Greenbaum



Tzav – ‘Command’ – Jeremiah 7:21-28; 9:22-23

This week’s haftarah portion is the same manner as last week, connects to the korbanot – offerings. It is often pointed out that “Obedience is better than sacrifice”.

Thus says HaShem of hosts, the G-d of Israel: “Add your burnt offerings to your sacrifices and eat meat. For I did not speak to your fathers, or command them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices. But this is what I commanded them, saying, ‘Obey My voice, and I will be your G-d, and you shall be My people. And walk in all the ways that I have commanded you, that it may be well with you.’ Yet they did not obey or incline their ear, but followed the counsels and the dictates of their evil hearts, and went backward and not forward. -Jeremiah 7:21-24

This is a nation that does not obey the voice of HaShem their G-d nor receive correction. Truth has perished and has been cut off from their mouth.

-Jeremiah 7:28

Here is what Adonai says:“The wise man should not boast of his wisdom,

the powerful should not boast of his power,the wealthy should not boast of his wealth; instead, let the boaster boast about this: that he understands and knows me —that I am Adonai, practicing grace,justice and righteousness in the land;for in these things I take pleasure,” says Adonai. -Jeremiah 9:22-23

Sanctify us with Your commandments and grant us our share in Your Torah; satisfy us from Your goodness and gladden us with Your salvation ( i.e yeshuah ), and purify our heart to serve You sincerely.

Holy, holy, holy is HaShem, LORD of Heaven’s Armies, the whole world is filled with His glory.

Gaddi – President

A Servant of Most Ancient Holy one of Israel and Disciple of Yeshua HaMashiach

www.beityaaqov.org

email : gaddi.yosef.efrayim@gmail.com