Mishpatim | ?????? | “Judgments ” – Laws on earth – Lay the table of Torah for everyone to eat from ; And Tzadik eats to satisfy his Soul – Ascend to Holy Mountain
The eighteenth reading from the Torah is named Mishpatim (??????), which means “Judgments.” The word “Mishpatim,” the namesake of our parasha and its singular form “mishpat,” is found many times throughout the Five Books of the Torah. The first verse of the reading, which could be literally translated to say, “And these are the judgments which you will place before them” (Exodus 21:1). Following the giving of the Ten Commandments in last week’s Torah portion, Parashat Mishpatim brings us a diverse collection of civil, criminal, ritual, and ethical laws. And the final chapter describes how the people of Israel consented to keep these laws and entered into a covenant relationship with G-d through a series of rituals conducted by Moses.
Mishpatim defines relationships between Man and G-d, Man and Man, Man and the Land, and Man and Property. – Now these are the Judgments which you shall set before them: –Exodus 21:1
Most High attributes of action: “The deeds of the [Mighty] Rock are perfect, for all His ways are Justice; a faithful G-d, without injustice He is righteous and upright.” (Sefer Devarim, Deut 32:4, with my emendations for clarity) . Far be it from You! Will the Judge of the entire earth not perform Justice (mishpat)? (Sefer Bereishit (Genesis 18:25)
In this Torah portion, Moses details many of G-d’s laws to the Israelites. These include laws about the prohibitions of idol worship, kashrut, business ethics, and treatment of animals. Most High outlines the details of three holidays: Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot. G-d provides an angel to protect the Israelites from their enemies, and warns the Israelites not to worship other g-ds. Moses goes up to Mount Sinai to meet with Most High for 40 days and 40 nights, leaving Aaron and Hur in charge. Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel ascend the mountain and see G-d. Moses goes on alone and spends forty days on the mountain. (Exodus 24:1-18)
The Rambam (1135-1204) codifies the distinction between chukim and mishpatimin the following manner: The Mishpatim are those commandments wherein their rationale is revealed and the value (lit. “good”) that obtains as a result of their performance is known in this world. For example: the prohibitions of stealing and murder and the obligation to honor one’s father and mother. [In contrast,] the chukim are those commandments whose rationale is unknown. (Mishneh Torah, Hilchot Meilah 8:8)
The term “Mishpat” is employed is that of ultimate judgement or decision. Find the following verse: You shall place the Urim and the Tummim into the breastplate of Judgment so that they will be over Aaron’s heart when he comes before the L-rd, and Aaron will carry the judgment of the children of Israel over his heart before the L-rd at all times. (Sefer Shemot , Ex 28:30, with my emendations)
The expression “the breastplate of judgment” appears in the original Hebrew as “choshen hamishpat” with the letter “heh” preceding the term “mishpat.” This means that this garment of the Kohan Gadol (the High Priest) .
Our Rabbis taught: “You should perform my mishpatim” (Sefer Vayikra 18:4). These are matters that were they not actually written [by G-d] it is logical that they would have been. These are some examples: the prohibitions of idol worship, illicit sexual behavior, murder, stealing, and cursing Hashem. “… and you should guard mychukim” [Ibid.] These are matters wherein the Satan [Rashi, yetzer harah, the “evil inclination”] attempts to disprove their validity and veracity. These are some examples: the prohibitions of eating pig flesh, wearing garments comprised of a mixture of linen and wool threads, the act of relieving a brother-in-law of his obligation to marry his widowed sister-in-law (chalitzah), the ritual purification of the individual afflicted with Tzarat, and the scapegoat rite [of Yom Kippur]. [Since you cannot understand them] perhaps you will say that they are completely worthless and devoid of meaning! Therefore the Torah states [Ibid.]: “I am the L-rd your G-d.” I am He who has decreed it [i.e. the chukim] and you do not have permission to question them.
Giving of the Holy Spirit is to enable G-d’s people to keep the chukim as well as the mishpatim: And it is written: “And I will put My Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes (chukim), and you shall keep My judgments (mishpatim), and do them” -Ezekiel 36:27.
And again it is written: “And I will put a new spirit within them…that they may walk in My statutes (chukim) and keep My ordinances (mishpatim), and do them. Then they will be My people, and I shall be their G-d” (Ezekiel.11:19).
Our Rabbis divide the Mitzvos into three general categories:
a) Mishpatim (lit., “judgments”), those mitzvos which are dictated by reason, for example the prohibitions against theft and murder. Even if the Torah had not been given, Chas v’Shalom, we would have instituted – as did most societies throughout the world – laws of this nature.
And also find in the New Testament of Rabbi Yeshua Words:
“You have heard that our fathers were told, ‘Do not murder,’ and that anyone who commits murder will be subject to Judgment. But I tell you that anyone who nurses anger against his brother will be subject to judgment; that whoever calls his brother, ‘You good-for-nothing!’ will be brought before the Sanhedrin; that whoever says, ‘Fool!’ incurs the penalty of burning in the fire of Gei-Hinnom! – Matthew 5:21-22
For out of the heart come forth wicked thoughts, murder, adultery and other kinds of sexual immorality, theft, lies, slanders. . . . –Matthew 15:19
For from within, out of a person’s heart, come forth wicked thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery,…. -Mark 7:21
In the New Testament: Therefore, put to death the earthly parts of your nature — sexual immorality, impurity, lust, evil desires and greed (which is a form of idolatry); -Colossians 3:5
..yet they cursed the G-d of heaven because of their pains and sores, and did not turn from their sinful deeds. -Revelation 16:11
Our actions reveal our hearts: Yeshua was not saying that all that matters is the heart or the motives of man – instead He taught us that a man’s motives will be evident in what he does. Breaking G-d’s commandments called mishpatim [judgments] will be evident in how we treat others. G-d’s mishpatim are summed up best in the command, “Love your neighbor as yourself” (Leviticus 19:18). Breaking G-d’s mishpatim will reveal whether we truly love G-d as well (Deuteronomy 6:5).
As you study this week’s Scripture portion, contemplate what mishpatim are, and how they relate to G-d’s command to love your neighbor.
“I am giving you a new command: that you keep on loving each other. In the same way that I have loved you, you are also to keep on loving each other. – John 13:34
b) eidus (lit., “testimonials”), commemorative mitzvos, e.g., observing the Shabbos or eating matzah on Pesach, which enable us to relive the events of history, and grasp their spiritual significance. The edot are feast days and other rituals that testify to some important spiritual truth. Edot can be translated “testimonies” or “witnesses,” in Joshua 22:34: “And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad called the altar Ed: for it shall be a witness between us that the Lord is G-d.”
In the New Testament: So let us celebrate the Seder not with leftover hametz, the hametz of wickedness and evil, but with the matzah of purity and truth. -1 Corinthians 5:8
So don’t let anyone pass Judgment on you in connection with eating and drinking, or in regard to a Jewish festival or Rosh-Hodesh or Shabbat. These are a shadow of things that are coming, but the body is of the Messiah. – Colossians 2 : 16-17
And let us keep paying attention to one another, in order to spur each other on to love and good deeds, not neglecting our own congregational meetings, as some have made a practice of doing, but, rather, encouraging each other.And let us do this all the more as you see the Day approaching. -Hebrews 10:24-25
c) Chukim (lit., “decrees”), mitzvos that are superrational, that are “a decree from Me, [which] you have no permission to question.”
In Scripture, as it is stated, “chukim and mishpatim of justice”, “The mishpatim of Hashem are true and righteous altogether” – Psalm 19:10.
And in Deuteronomy 4:8; What great nation is there that has laws and rulings as just as this entire Torah which I am setting before you today?
Rashi: “This is the chukah (decree) of the Torah, which Hashem has commanded etc.” (Bamidbar, Numbers 19:2) . [Chukim are] matters that are only the decree of the King, without any reason, and with which the yetzer ha’ra (evil inclination) finds fault, saying, “What [cause for] prohibition is there in these? Why were they prohibited?” Examples include [the prohibitions of] wearing shaatnez [a mixture of wool and linen] and eating pork, and the parah adumah(red heifer) and the like.
Ramban proceeds to clarify what Rashi really meant : Their intention is not that a decree of the King of kings would have no reason, for “every word of G-d is refined” (Mishlei 30:5). Rather, chukim are like the decrees of a king which he enacts in his kingdom without revealing their beneficial purpose to the nation. [Consequently,] the masses do not take delight in them, but are critical of them in their hearts, and accept them out of the fear of the kingship. The same is true of the chukim of Ha’Kadosh Baruch Hu: they are the esoteric matters which are contained in his Torah, which the masses – in their minds – do not delight in, like they do with the mishpatim.But [in truth] all of them have a good rationale and completely beneficial [reason].
In all cases, we recognize each different use of our term as emanating directly from Hakadosh Baruch Hu (the Holy One Blessed be He). In summary, we have seen that the Torah utilizes the word “Mishpat” and its plural form “mishpatim” in at least three different ways: Justice ; A logically determinable law ; The Ultimate Judgment of our Creator.
In the Seventh Year He Shall Go to into Freedom:
The Parsha therefore starts with the laws concerning the Hebrew slave in order to show that “the Children of Israel are servants to Me” (Leviticus 25:55).
Slaves – The first law set forth in Mishpatim concerns the way to treat a slave. It says that a slave can serve you for 6 years, but must be released in the 7th year and set free of charge. Interpersonal laws ranging from the treatment of slaves to the exhibition of kindness to strangers are listed. ( Exodus 21:1-23:9)
“When you will buy a Hebrew servant, he shall work for six years, and in the seventh, he shall go into freedom, without charge.” (Shemot / Exodus 21:2)
One who had heard My voice on Mount Sinai when I said that “the Children of Israel are My servants”, and not the servants of servants, and had then sold himself to a master, shall be pierced.” (Tractate Kiddushin, 22b)
As we have seen, the Children of Israel were liberated from slavery because of the observance of Shabbat (YerushalmiTaanith 1:1), their circumcision before leaving Egypt (TanhumaBeshalach 7), and the mitzvah of Tefillin (Exodus 13:16).
And he shall serve him forever [le’olam] – for the period of a Jubilee – there being no longer period of time in the Jewish calendar. Exodus to freedom is like a renewal of the world [olam]. Or another possible explanation: He shall return to his original status of freedom. (Ibn Ezra, Shemot ad loc)
BESORAH (THE “GOOD NEWS”) – Jubilee Release
The Good News is that Messiah our Yeshua has come to initiate the Jubilee release. The forgiveness of debts and return of slaves is also called the “Jubilee release.”
You who bring good news to Tziyon,get yourself up on a high mountain;
you who bring good news to Yerushalayim,cry out at the top of your voice! Don’t be afraid to shout out loud! Say to the cities of Y’hudah, “Here is your G-d! – Isaiah 40:9
But the Yerushalayim above is free…. Galatians 4:26 …..Jerusalem above” is Binah as Jubilee, the symbol of freedom/redemption.
Isaiah prophecy that indicates the Messiah will carry out judgment in the “Day of the Lord”: Isaiah 61:1-3 – The Spirit of the Lord G-D is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound; To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn; To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; that they might be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the LORD, that he might be glorified.
Yeshua Words from Isaiah Chapter: Luke 4:18-19 – The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.
Writings of Qumran (Dead Sea Scrolls) : 11Q13, Col. 2 – … And concerning what Scripture says, “In this year of Jubilee you shall return everyone of you, to your property (Leviticus 25:13). And what is also written; and this is the manner of the remission; every creditor shall remit the claim that is held against a neighbor, not exacting it of a neighbor who is a member of the community, because God’s remission has been proclaimed” (Deuteronomy 15:2) the interpretation is that it applies to the Last Days and concerns the captives just as Isaiah said: “To proclaim the Jubilee to the captives (Isaiah 61:1) … just as … and from the inheritance of Melchizadek, for … Melchizadek, who will return them to what is rightfully theirs. He will proclaim to them the Jubilee, thereby releasing them from the debt of their sins. He shall proclaim this decree in the first week of the Jubilee period that follows nine Jubilee periods. Then the “Day of Atonement” shall follow after the tenth Jubilee period, when he shall atone for all the Sons of Light, and the people who are predestined to Melchizadek … upon them … For this is the time decreed for the “year of Melchizadek’s favor,” and by his might he will judge G-d’s holy ones and so establish a righteous kingdom, as it is written about him in the songs of David: “An ELOHIM has taken his place in the council of EL; in the midst of the ELOHIM he holds judgment (Psalm 82:1). Scripture also says about him: “Over it take your seat in the highest heaven; an ELOHIM will judge the peoples” (Psalm 7:7-8). Concerning what Scripture says about him: “How long will you judge unjustly, and show partiality with the wicked? Selah” (Psalm 82:2). The interpretation applies to Belial and the spirits predestined to him, because all of them have rebelled, turning from God’s precepts and so becoming utterly wicked. Therefore Melchizadek will thoroughly prosecute the vengeance required by God’s statutes. Also, he will deliver all the captives from the power of Belial, and from the power of the spirits predestined to him. Allied with him will be all the “righteous ELOHIM” (Isaiah 61:3). The … is that whi(ch) … all) the ELOHIM. The “messenger who brings good news, who announces Salvation” is the one of whom it is written; “to proclaim the year of YHWH’s favor, the day of the vengeance of our G-d; to comfort all who mourn (Isaiah 61:2). This scriputure’s interpretation: he is to instruct them about all the periods of history for eternity … and in the statutes of the truth … dominion that passes from Belial and returns to the Sons of Light … by the judgment of G-d, just as it is written concerning him; “Who says to Zion ‘Your ELOHIM reigns’” (Isaiah 52:7). Zion is the congregation of all the sons of righteousness, who uphold the covenant and turn from walking in the way of the people. “Your ELOHIM” is Melchizadek, who will deliver then from the power of Belial. Concerning what scriputre says, “Then you shall have the trumpet sounded loud in the seventh month …” (Leviticus 25:9). (3)
An Eye for an Eye – The portion says “If there is serious injury you are to take life for life, an eye for an eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound and bruise for bruise.”
Rabbi says: a life for a life – money. Do you say “money” or is it “death”? We expound: Here we read shita- “impose”, and elsewhere we read shita – just as there the reference is to monetary compensation, so here, too, it is monetary compensation. An eye for an eye , money. Do you say “money”, or is it really an eye? Rabbi Eliezar used to say: One who strikes the life an animal is to pay for it – but one who strikes down a human is to be put to death -Scripture juxtaposes damages to a human with damages to an animal; just damage to an animal is punished by monetary fine, so damage to a human is punished by monetary fine. –(Mekhilta, Mishpatim Parasha 8: 90-91)
A life for a life, an eye for an eye… a hand for a hand – A life he pays; he does not pay money for life. An eye for an eye… We have learned “an eye for [literally, ‘beneath’] an eye”—that means financial compensation (Talmud, Bava Kama 84c).
Yeshua Words: “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I say to you,… ‘If anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other.’… You have also heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, ‘Love your enemy and pray for those who persecute you.’” – Matthew 5 : 38 -48
Secret to Separating Milk from Meat – Mishpatim also provides the basis for the prohibition of mixing milk and meat where it states “Do not cook a goat in its mother’s milk.” A Kabbalstic interpretation of this law describes the underlying spiritual reason as the separation of two distinct energies – the mixing of which creates a negative effect. Meat, which is red in color, represents the Divine energy of Gevurah – severity and judgment. It is similarly representative of death and end, as meat turns rancid if left out over time and is available as food only when an animal has been killed. Milk on the other hand is white in color and represents the Divine energy of Chesed – sharing and mercy. Milk is conversely taken from an animal that is alive and has continuity, the ability to be turned into other products (yogurt and cheese) over time.
Another description: The Torah therefore prohibits us from mixing meat with milk, meaning that Hashem commands everyone to make a distinction between meat and milk in their homes. What is the objective of this? As we all know, meat is red, which alludes to impurity (forbidden things, which are red), to transgressions. Milk, however, is white, alluding to purity (mitzvot), to permitted and legitimate things. By this Hashem asks everyone to make a distinction between holiness and impurity in their homes. If such is the case with this mitzvah, we must act in the same way for all the mitzvot. We must not mix things up. We must always act with holiness and purity, even inside the home, not just outside of it. We should have a fear of Heaven both in private and in public, even when it is difficult and even when we encounter trials. It is only in this way that we will merit all the good that is reserved for the Tzaddikim, Hashem’s great reward.
The Torah – the secret of secrets – alludes to everything. Happy is the one who can perceive this! Happy is the one who “does not deviate…right or left” (Deuteronomy 17:11) from the Torah.
Moses commanded us to read sections of the Torah on Saturdays and festivals (YerushalmiMegillah 4:1), and Ezra commanded us to read them on Mondays and Thursdays, as well as on Saturday afternoon (ibid.,Bava Kama 82a). A difficult question arises: Are we not obligated to constantly study Torah, as it is written: “This book of the Torah shall not depart from your mouth; rather you should contemplate it day and night” (Joshua 1:8); “You shall teach them thoroughly to your children, and you shall speak of them while you sit in your home, while you walk on the way…” (Deuteronomy 6:7); “If not for My covenant [the Torah], I would not have appointed days and nights, the decrees of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25)? The verse, “If you follow My decrees” (Leviticus 26:3) means, “That you should labor in [studying] Torah” (ToratKohanim ibid.).
Torah study instills us with the character strength of our Patriarchs, who managed to eliminate their evil inclination to such a degree that they became “the Chariot of the Divine Presence” (Zohar I:213b)
We are required to diligently engage in Torah study. We will then receive heavenly assistance that will enable us to perform mitzvot with greater fervor and eliminate all traces of the evil inclination. Our victory in mastering ourselves will earn us reward both in this world and the World to Come.
We are to be “doers of the Word” and not just “hearers of the Word. And it is written: For it is not merely the hearers of Torah whom G-d considers righteous; rather, it is the doers of what Torah says who will be made righteous in G-d’s sight. – Romans 2:13
“These are the laws which you should place INSIDE of them.” And it speaks of “internalizing” and “absorbing” the commands of Torah into our very bones. We find the same concept is reflected in the words of Yeshua: We are to “eat his flesh and drink his blood” (John 6:22-58), making the Torah as much of our very being as flesh and blood is.When Yeshua speaks of “eating His flesh and His blood,” this is referring to the Torah, And Torah became flesh and dwelt among us, as he is the “Torah in the flesh”. (i.e He is the Living Torah). The manna eaten by the Children of Israel was a physical representation of the Torah, which was what truly sustained them. And his disciples understood that he meant about His “flesh and blood” as being, “the words of eternal life” – the Torah: In Jewish concept, when one accepts the teachings of Torah, it is said to “become a person’s flesh and blood.” This is defined as to fully accept the teachings of Tzaddik Yeshua, is to partake of His “flesh and blood” – which is the Torah. The “life” and blessing that the heavennly divine Tzaddik brings, are to his righteous followers.
As it is written: “The Tzadik is the foundation of the world” (Proverbs l0:25). Moreover, “The Tzadik( ie. righteous one) eats to satisfy his soul” (Proverbs l3:25).
He came to teach these aspects of Torah, “fulfilling the Torah” (Matthew 5:17-21), which means to teach it correctly and follow his footsteps. The true inner spiritual dimension of the Torah which was taught by Yeshua : ….. but you have neglected the weightier matters of theTorah — justice, mercy, trust. These are the things you should have attended to — without neglecting the others! – Matthew 23:23-28
Jeremiah 34:8-22, 33:25-26
Psalm 72:1 – 20
1 Kings 10:9
Matthew 5 : 38-42
Matthew 17 : 1 – 11
The name of this week’s Torah portion, Mishpatim (??????), means “judgments.” The Torah portion contains a list of commandments and guidelines for the exercise of righteousness and justice (mishpat, ????). And in new Testament : Our Master Yeshua declared justice to be the first of three weighty matters of the Torah: “Justice and mercy and faithfulness”
“Woe to you hypocritical Torah-teachers and P’rushim! You pay your tithes of mint, dill and cumin; but you have neglected the weightier matters of theTorah — justice, mercy, trust. These are the things you should have attended to — without neglecting the others! –– Matthew 23:23.
Blessed be the LORD your God who delighted in you to set you on the throne of Israel; because the LORD loved Israel forever, therefore He made you king, to do Justice and righteousness. -1 Kings 10:9
Will of father:
The grass withers, the flower fades, but the Word of our G-d stands forever.
“But what do you think? A man had two sons, and he came to the first and said, ‘Son, go, work today in my vineyard.’ He answered and said, ‘I will not,’ but afterward he regretted it and went. Then he came to the second and said likewise. And he answered and said, ‘I go, sir,’ but he did not go. Which of the two did the will of his father?” They said to Him, “The first.” –Matthew 21:28-31a
For this is the love of G-d, that we keep His commandments. And His commandments are not burdensome. -1 John 5:3
Not everyone who says to me, “My master! My master!” will enter the kingdom of Heaven, but rather the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. –Matthew 7:21
A Large part of mishpatim [judgments] that Yeshua speaks of in what is called His “Sermon on the Mount” in the chapters from Matthew 5-7 in the book of New Testament . Yeshua said: Do not think that I came to destroy [kataluo] the Torah or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill [pleroo]. For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one yod or one tittle will by no means pass from the Torah till all is fulfilled [ginomai]. Here the word “fulfilled” is ginomai which means “to arise, or to be.”
Whoever therefore breaks[luo] one of the least of these commandments, and teaches men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever does and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
The Sages and early Rabbis spoke of making Scripture “fall down” or “stand up.” If a teacher gave a bad interpretation of a Scripture passage, it was said of him that he made the Torah “fall down.” If an interpretation was good, it was said of him that he made the Torah “stand up.” This is what Yeshua is speaking of here. Yeshua is telling His disciples that he had come to correctly interpret Scripture – “To make it Stand up”.
Blessed be He, Who knows the truth (Bertinoro, letter to his father, 1488, Treasury of Jewish Letters, Kobler, 309) : “FROM A FALSE MATTER (or WORD), STAY FAR AWAY” (Ex. 23:7): Human speech is sacred– “Lying lips are an abomination to G-d” (Prov. 12:22). G-d makes Man from dust (of the altar; see Exodus. 20:21, Yer. Nazir 7:2); He breathes the spirit of life into him– it becomes a LIVING SOUL (Genesis 2:7), i.e. A SPEAKING SPIRIT (Targum Yonaton, Onkelos). “G-d the Lord is truth” (Jeremiah 10:10); “Your Torah is truth” (Psalms. 119:142); G-D’S SEAL IS TRUTH (R. Chanina, Shab. 55a). Perhaps God’s seal, His sealed verdict in history, shows who spoke or predicted the truth– cf. Yosef’s dreams; R. Shimon B. Gamliel, Rebbe’s dad, says: “THE WORLD CONTINUES TO EXIST VIA THREE THINGS: JUSTICE, TRUTH AND PEACE” (Avot 1:18). “Speak every man the truth with his neighbor” (Zechariah. 8:16). “All His works are truth, all his ways justice” (Daniel 4:34). Truth and peace sometimes conflict, but society needs both to function (see Yev. 65b, B.M. 23b-24a). Justice balances them; it also decides between competing claims of truth. But on Shabbat, devoted to experiencing eventual eternal peace, we try to avoid unpleasant truths, temporal problems, “igniting fire” in our dwellings.
The prophet cries out to Israel, about to be exiled: AND TRUTH IS LACKING (Isaiah. 59:15). R. Yermiya b. Abba said: “four classes will not receive the presence of the Shechina: scoffers, flatters, liars and slanderers– liars, as written: `HE THAT LIES SHALL NOT BE ESTABLISHED BEFORE MY EYES’” (Psalms. 101:7; Sota 42a).
But as for the cowardly, the untrustworthy, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those involved with the occult and with drugs, idol-worshippers, and all liars — their destiny is the lake burning with fire and sulfur, the second death.” – Revelation 21:8
“HE WHO SPEAKS TRUTH IN HIS HEART” (Psalms. 76:2) SO THE HOLY ONE BLESSED BE HE ACKNOWLEDGES TRUTH AND SAYS: “CORRECTLY DO TZAFCHAD’S DAUGHTERS SPEAK” (Numbers. 27:7– AD’RN 37). IT’S NOT PROPER TO SWEAR, EVEN IN TRUTH (Tan. Vayikra). In Exodus. 34:6, He proclaimed: “G-d, G-d, merciful and kind Lord, patient and of much kindness and truth”.
G-d threatened to bury the Children of Israel under the mountain so that everyone would acknowledge the validity of the other’s viewpoint. “If you accept My Torah in accord and harmony, without seeking your own selfish interests,” He told them, “Good. If not, sham [‘there’ – under the mountain] you will be buried.” The destiny of the person who only cares about his own reputation – one who only cares about his own shem (“name”) and thinks that he is important; one who rejects all other ways of serving G-d – will be bitter. Yikaver, he will be buried in his shem, as it is written: Veshemreshaimyirkav (“And the name of the wicked shall rot” – Proverbs 10:7). If we share our fellow’s point of view when we are ke’ish (an abbreviation of kanenoyirkav, yikavershemo: “Here he will not rot, and his name will not be buried”), we will merit living a pleasant life both in this world and the World to Come.
A person can study Torah, recite prayers, and perform mitzvot, yet he must be constantly careful to not feel superior to others in wisdom or knowledge. He must love his fellow, both internally (belevechad) and externally (ke’ishechad), and his heart should be in accord with his mouth concerning his sentiments for him (see Pesachim 113b).
According to Hashem’s words to Moses, He came to him “in a thick cloud, that the people may hear [Hebrew verb is singular] when I speak with you, and believe in you forever” (Exodus 19:9).
At the end of Mishpatim studies the Torah states, “The entire nation replied in one voice, we will do all the things that G-d told us.” In the very next verse, we find that Moshe built an ALTER and 12 PILLARS, as it says, “Then he built an ALTER next to the mountain and 12 PILLARS for the 12 Tribes of Israel” (Shemot, Exodus 24:4).
The Rashbam states that the 12 PILLARS were to symbolize that all 12 components of the Israel Nation accepted the Torah. By setting up 12 separate MONUMENTS, Moshe demonstrated that each of the 12 Tribes accepted its own special unique mission as part of G-d’s Holy People.
It had a great, high wall with twelve gates, and with twelve angels at the gates. On the gates were written the names of the twelve tribes of Israel. -Revelation 21:12
The Shem MiShmuel explains that the ALTER and the PILLAR represent two different facets of serving G-d. The PILLAR consists of one stone, but the ALTER is constructed of many stones. The single-stoned PILLAR symbolizes the service of an individual, while the many-stoned ALTER alludes to the service of G-d of the entire community as a whole. However, once the Israel People received the Torah, we became obligated to serve G-d as a United Nation, consisting of 12 Tribes, rather than as individuals.
The heart desire is to “bring G-d into every aspect of our lives” and thus “conform us to his image” may be described in terms of “unifying the Name of Most Hugh” in our lives. ( Zechariah 14:9 – “in that day His Name will be One”) is something we can experience on all aspects in our lives.This is accomplished by learning Torah at deeper and deeper levels in which we(souls) connect to above Jerusalem for the understanding of word of Most High.
Thus, when G-d gave us the Torah, at Mount Sinai, we were, “Like one person with one heart” (Rashi, Shemot; Exodus 19:2).If only we can attain that level today thereby speeding up the Final Redemption.
Let us therefore seek peace by all possible means, for wise and learned men increase peace in the world, as it is written: “Torah scholars increase peace in the world” (Berachot 64a). They are called bannaim (“builders”), for they are constantly engaged in building up the world (Shabbat 114a). This is what happens when everyone follows Hashem in his own individual way, yet acts solely for the sake of Heaven. Accord and harmony lead to success in every area.
As for the Children of Israel, they stood “before the mountain” (Exodus 19:2), meaning that they rid themselves of the evil inclination (see Sukkah 52a).Therefore they all served Hashem with one heart.
THE TORAH CODE — Studies from Rabbi Avraham Yehoshua Greenbaum
After the heights of G-dly revelation as recounted in last week’s parshah, MISHPATIM plunges us into the intricate depths of the Torah code of law. The laws revealed at Marah prior to the “Giving of the Torah, together with those set forth in MISHPATIM and all the other laws hose written elsewhere in the Torah are all integral parts of the single unified code that was revealed at Sinai (see Rashi on Leviticus 25:1). Since G-d is perfect unity, the entire code was implied in a single flash with the first DIBUR (“word”) “I am HaShem your G-d” (Ex. 20:2). Corresponding to the Ten Sefiros that underlie all creation, the Ten Words (ASERES HADIBROS, the “Ten Commandments”) constitute the underlying fundamentals of the entire Mosaic code. In a sense, “All the rest is commentary” — the six hundred and thirteen separate commandments that make up the code are all details implicit in the essential unity of G-d. All are necessary in order to reveal that unity to the world.
The many laws in MISHPATIM constitute the core of the Mosaic code, teaching us how to BE WITH G-D in ALL our involvements and activities in this world.
It is appropriate for the nation that came to Sinai from slavery in Egypt that the code of MISHPATIM opens with the laws of slavery. The law of MITZRAIM, Egypt, the place of METZAR, constriction, was that no slave could ever go free. But the first of the detailed laws of n the Torah code tells us that the opposite is the case. The Hebrew slave must work for his master for six years, but in the seventh year he goes free. If he chooses to stay on with his master after six years, he may do so, but only until the fiftieth year, the YOVEL (“jubilee”). Time goes in cycles. A person may fall low, but eventually the cycle swings around, and he comes up. The cyclical nature of time implicit in the fourth commandment (six days of work followed by Shabbos) is revealed in the laws of slavery in MISHPATIM to be a redemptive quality. The Sabbath day, the Sabbatical year and the Jubilee (after 7 x 7 = 49 years) all have the power to free man from the various kinds of slavery into which he falls.
Slavery in the literal sense is still widespread in many parts of the world. In addition, many who are supposedly “free” are also “slaves” in one sense or another, whether to their circumstances, to those around them, to deep-seated inner blocks, to urges and desires, to the dictates of the media, fashion, advertisers, etc. etc.
The Holy Zohar, whose commentary on MISHPATIM is exceptionally lengthy, reveals in detail how the laws of slavery in our parshah contain the laws and principles by which souls are re-incarnated in this world. Souls are obliged to “serve” in different incarnations order to pay off debts incurred through sins and failures in previous incarnations. All of the other detailed commandments in the Torah also contain mystical allusions. For the revealed code of Torah law, which applies to our lives and everyday business and other affairs, is one and the same as the code through which G-d governs the entire universe on all its different levels. All is unity.
Besides slavery, the code of laws contained in MISHPATIM includes the basic laws of marriage, murder, manslaughter, kidnap, willful injury, willful and unwitting damages of person and property, theft, negligence, loans, law court procedure, ritual and other laws. The code concludes with the laws of the Sabbatical year, the Sabbath and annual festivals, all of which bring redemption into the cycle of time.
At the end of the parshah we read: “And HaShem said to Moses, go up to Me to the mountain and be there, and I will give you the Tablets of Stone, the Torah, the Mitzvah that I have written to teach them” (Ex. 24:12).
The Talmud explains: “THE TABLETS are the Ten Commandments. THE TORAH means the written Torah (“MIKRA”); THE MITZVAH means the Mishneh (=Oral Law); THAT I HAVE WRITTEN — these are the prophets and the holy writings (NEVI’IM and KESUVIM). TO TEACH THEM — this is the Gemara, (the deductive principles of the Torah). Teaching that they were all given to Moses from Sinai.” (Berachos 5a).
The written Torah, as we read it in the weekly parshah, is an integral unity with the oral Torah. Thus our parshah of MISHPATIM contains the foundations of the laws expounded at length in four out of the six orders of the Mishneh — the Oral Law. Thus in MISHPATIM we encounter some of the main laws of the order of ZERA’IM (“Seeds” – agriculture), including Terumah, the tithe for the priest, and the Sabbatical year. We also encounter the fundamental laws of the order of MO’ED (the seasons and festivals), of NASHIM (marriage) and of NEZIKIN (damages, property, loans, legal procedure).
At the end of MISHPATIM we read “And Moses came into the cloud and he went up to the mountain, and Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights” (Ex. 24:18). Immediately afterward, in next week’s parshah of TERUMAH, the Torah begins to explain the form of the Sanctuary, the prototype Temple, and how it was constructed and inaugurated in the wilderness. This will take up the remainder of Exodus, after which we enter Leviticus and the world of sacrifices and ritual purity. Sacrifices and ritual purity are the subjects of KODOSHIM (holy items) and TAHAROS (purity), the last two orders of the Mishneh.
-Rabbi Avraham Yehoshua Greenbaum
Haftarat Mishpatim – “Judgments” (Jeremiah 34:8-22; 33:25-26)
In the haftarah for Parashat Mishpatim, Jeremiah berates the people of Judah for keeping Israel slaves against G-d’s wishes, and predicts that Jerusalem will be conquered because of the people’s disrespect for G-d.
The haftarah portion from Jeremiah : The prophet Jeremiah was sent to tell Israel that because of her persistent disobedience, she was about to be sent into exile in Babylon. In fact, the exile in Babylon was to be seventy years – one year for each of the missed sh’mittah years since they had entered the Land. The sh’mittah is the seventh year of the seven year cycle. It is a year that the farm land was to lay fallow, and the year that all Israelite slaves were to be set free. The first reference to the sh’mittah is found in Exodus 21, from this week’s Torah portion.
Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them: If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years; and in the seventh he shall go out free and pay nothing. – Exodus 21:1-2
“And this whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. Then it will come to pass, when seventy years are completed, that I will punish the king of Babylon and that nation, the land of the Chaldeans, for their iniquity.” says HaShem; “and I will make it a perpetual desolation.” -Jeremiah 25:11-12
And those who escaped from the sword he carried away to Babylon, where they became servants to him and his sons until the rule of the kingdom of Persia, to fulfill the word of HaShem by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her Sabbaths. As long as she lay desolate she kept Sabbath, to fulfill seventy years.
-2 Chronicles 36:20-21
For seventy sh’mittahs [seven year cycles, or 490 years], Israel had not obeyed Exodus 21:1-2. It was for Israel’s disobedience of these commands that she was sent into the seventy year captivity in Babylon. And it is from that seventy year captivity that we are given the future prophecies regarding Daniel’s “seventy sevens” from the chapter of Daniel .
In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the lineage of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans – in the first year of his reign I, Daniel, understood by the books the number of the years specified by the word of HaShem through Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem. -Daniel 9:1-2
Seventy sevens are determined for your people and for your holy city, to finish the transgression, to make an end of sins, to make reconciliation for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy. -Daniel 9:24
This is the word that came to Jeremiah from HaShem, after King Zedekiah had made a covenant with all the people who were at Jerusalem to proclaim liberty to them: that every man should set free his male and female slave—a Hebrew man or woman – that no one should keep a Jewish brother in bondage. Now when all the princes and all the people, who had entered into the covenant, heard that everyone should set free his male and female slaves, that no one should keep them in bondage anymore, they obeyed and let them go. But afterward they changed their minds and made the male and female slaves return, whom they had set free, and brought them into subjection as male and female slaves. Therefore the word of HaShem came to Jeremiah from HaShem , saying, “Thus says HaShem, the G-d of Israel: ‘I made a covenant with your fathers in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, saying, “At the end of seven years let every man set free his Hebrew brother, who has been sold to him; and when he has served you six years, you shall let him go free from you.” But your fathers did not obey Me nor incline their ear. Then you recently turned and did what was right in My sight – every man proclaiming liberty to his neighbor; and you made a covenant before Me in the house which is called by My name. Then you turned around and profaned My name, and every one of you brought back his male and female slaves, whom he had set at liberty, at their pleasure, and brought them back into subjection, to be your male and female slaves.’ “Therefore thus says HaShem: ‘You have not obeyed Me in proclaiming liberty, every one to his brother and every one to his neighbor. Behold, I proclaim liberty to you,’ says HaShem ‘to the sword, to pestilence, and to famine! And I will deliver you to trouble among all the kingdoms of the earth.’” -Jeremiah 34:8-17
Thus says HaShem: “If My covenant is not with day and night, and if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth, then I will cast away the descendants of Jacob and David My servant, so that I will not take any of his descendants to be rulers over the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. For I will cause their captives to return, and will have mercy on them.” -Jeremiah 33:25-26
There is only hope for Gentiles is to be grafted into Israel through Divine heavenly Tzaddik holy Work in above Mishkyan (i.e under the divine mandate of Mashiach ben Yosef) : Remember, you are attached to the root, please follow the footsteps of Mashiach ben Yosef as we love to call as Yeshua HaMashiach.
Therefore remember that you, once Gentiles in the flesh – who are called Uncircumcision [i.e. not Israel] by what is called the Circumcision [i.e. Israel] made in the flesh by hands that at that time you were without Messiah, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope and without G-d in the world. But now in Messiah Yeshua you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Messiah… Now, therefore, you are no longer strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of G-d. -Ephesians 2:11-13; 19
Praying every day: "and, Most High, our Lord, make the words of Your Torah sweet in our mouths..." "Praised are You, Adonai, ruler of the universe, who has sanctified us through His commandments and commanded us to get involved in the words of Torah...Praised are You, Adonai, who teaches Torah to His People Israel."
Remember our brothers, the whole House of Israel, in all the lands of their dispersion. Speedily bring them to Zion, Your city, to Jerusalem, Your dwelling place, as it is written in the Torah of Moses, Your servant: Even if your outcasts are at the ends of the world, from there HaShem, your G-d will gather you, from there He will fetch you. And HaShem, your G-d will bring you to the land which your fathers occupied, and you shall occupy it; and He will make you more prosperous and more numerous than your fathers.
Speedily send us Your righteous Messiah of the House of David to redeem those who long for Your salvation.
Reflect Your glorious majesty upon all the inhabitants of the Earth and let everyone who breathes declare: HaShem, G-d of Israel, is King and His dominion rules over all. Amen.
Gaddi – President